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Celiac Disease

Celiac disease, sometimes called celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an immune reaction to eating gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye.
The disease can cause long-lasting digestive problems and keep body from getting all the nutrients it needs.
People with untreated celiac disease often cannot absorb nutrients from their food, and this can lead to serious health complications, such as malnutrition, osteoporosis, infertility and even cancer.

#Celiac Disease Symptoms :
Celiac has a wide range of potential symptoms, from abdominal pain to headaches.The symptoms may be significantly different for children and adults. Even symptoms in men and women may differ.


1. Digestive Symptoms :
Digestive symptoms can include Diarrhea, Constipation, Heartburn, Bloating, Flatulence, Nausea, and even Vomiting in certain circumstances. People with celiac disease often are diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome.


2. Neurological Symptoms :
Many people with undiagnosed celiac disease experience, extreme Fatigue, insomnia and other sleep disorders, Brain Fog, Migraine headaches, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, irritability, restless leg syndrome.


3. Skin Disorders : 
One-fourth of people with celiac suffer from Dermatitis Herpetiformis(Gluten Rash), Psoraisis, Eczema, Alopecia Areata (loss of hairs), Hives, Acne and Dry Skin.


4. Bone and Joint Symptoms :

Osteoporosis, Joint Pain, Bone Pain, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Fibromyalgia also occur with regularity in those with celiac disease.
(Source : Kárpáti S. Dermatitis herpetiformis. Clin Dermatol. 2012;30(1):56-9. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2011.03.010)


5. Dental Issues :
Aphthous ulcers in both children and adults, frequent cavities, eroding enamel, and other recurring dental problems can signal the condition. Children with undiagnosed celiac might have spots on their new teeth with no enamel, delayed eruption of their teeth (either baby or adult), and multiple cavities.
(Source : Condò R, Costacurta M, Maturo P, Docimo R. The dental age in the child with coeliac disease. EurJ Paediatr Dent. 2011;12(3):184-8.)


#Celiac Disease Profile includes testing of following Antibodies :
Anti Gliadin IgG
Anti Gliadin IgA
Anti TTG IgA
Sample type : Blood

Anti TTG IgA :
Tissue transglutaminase is an enzyme that fixes damage in human body. People
with celiac disease often make antibodies that attack this enzyme. These are called anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. With celiac disease, the body attacks the lining of the small bowel, making it less able to absorb nutrients. The sensitivity to gluten can also cause :

  • Pain In The Abdomen

  • Low Blood Count (Anemia)

  • Tiredness

  • Muscle & Joint Pain

  • Gas

  • Diarrhoea

  • Vomiting

  • Weight Loss

  • Malnutrition

Anti Gliadin IgA :

  • Anti-Gliadin IgG is an ELISA-based, automated, in-vitro test system for the quantitative determination of IgG antibodies against gliadin in human serum or plasma.

  • This test is used to check for IgA deficiency, which can cause a false-negative tTG-IgA.

  • It is often used when a person tests negative for this test. it is performed alongside the tTG to establish whether there is some degree of IgA deficiency that might otherwise influence the results.

  • The protein gliadin is a component of gluten, a mixture of proteins found in many types of grain. A permanent intolerance to gluten is the cause of celiac disease, Anti-Gliadin titers correlate with the inflammation and with the condition of the mucous membrane of the small intestine.

Anti Gliadin IgG :
Though IgG levels are less specific to celiac disease, but may still be used in diagnosing autoimmune problems, especially in people who are deficient in IgA. A positive AGA-IgG blood test indicates that the body may be mounting an immune system response to gluten ingestion.
The AGA-IgG test also can be used to help diagnose Gluten Ataxia, a neurological autoimmune condition in which body reacts to gluten ingestion by attacking a part of  brain. Gluten ataxia can cause a loss of coordination that affects gait, balance, and even eyes. up to 60% of patients with gluten ataxia have evidence of cerebellar atrophy.
(Source : Hamidian Y, Togha M, Nafisi S, et al. Antigliadin antibody in sporadic adult ataxia. Iran J Neurol. 2012;11(1):16-20.)

#What do the Test findings imply ?
Antibodies for celiac disease come in a variety of forms. One’s celiac test results could reveal information about multiple types of antibodies. The following are examples of typical outcomes :

NEGATIVE : Individual is most likely free of celiac disease.
POSITIVE : It's very likely that individual have celiac disease.
UNCERTAINTY OR INDECISION : it remains unclear if an individual has any celiac disease.

NOTE : The consulting doctor may order additional tests to confirm or rule out celiac disease if the patient's results were positive or uncertain.

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